The Ottoman Empire, a historical juggernaut that left an indelible mark on the world, was born in the late 13th century. Its humble beginnings in Anatolia, modern-day Turkey, belied the empire’s eventual rise to unparalleled power. This ascent of the Ottoman Empire coincided with a resurgent Islamic world. This article delves into the factors underpinning the empire’s ascent and the resurgence of Islam during this epoch.

The Ottoman Empire’s Ascent

The genesis of the Ottoman Empire lay with Osman I, who led a modest Turkish tribe in Anatolia. Osman embarked on a campaign of territorial conquests, laying the foundation for a nascent state. This legacy was passed down to his son, Orhan, who further expanded the territory by annexing neighboring lands. Notably, the capture of the Byzantine city of Bursa marked the empire’s establishment, with Bursa serving as its inaugural capital. Subsequent expansion continued under Orhan’s son, Murad I, who extended Ottoman rule into the Balkans and parts of Europe.

A pivotal element in the empire’s ascent was its military prowess. The Ottomans maintained a disciplined army comprised of loyal soldiers. Their well-honed skills, combined with cutting-edge weaponry and tactics, gave them a formidable edge. Additionally, the Ottoman navy played a crucial role in territorial conquests along the Mediterranean coast.

Strategic location also favored the Ottomans. Situated in Anatolia, they enjoyed a vantage point that granted access to both Europe and Asia. This geographical advantage facilitated bi-directional expansion and established trade routes with neighboring regions.

Administrative and economic reforms were another hallmark of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans implemented a meritocratic governance system, where officials were appointed based on qualifications rather than social status. This led to efficient administration. Introduction of standardized currency and taxation systems bolstered state revenue.

The Resurgence of Islam

The Ottoman Empire’s ascent paralleled the resurgence of Islam, attributable to several factors, including the Mongol Empire’s decline and the weakening Byzantine Empire.

The once-mighty Mongol Empire began to wane in the 14th century, creating a power vacuum. Emerging states, including the Ottoman Empire, seized this opportunity to expand.

The Byzantine Empire’s gradual decline further contributed to the resurgence of Islam. No longer the dominant regional power, its weakening allowed the Ottomans to conquer Balkan and European territories.

This resurgence also had profound cultural and intellectual ramifications. Islam had historically made significant contributions to science, art, and literature during the Islamic Golden Age. The rise of the Ottoman Empire sparked a cultural and intellectual renaissance, attracting scholars and artists from across the Islamic world to the Ottoman court.


The Ottoman Empire’s ascendancy and the resurgence of Islam were intrinsically intertwined. The Ottomans harnessed military might, strategic geography, administrative prowess, and economic reforms to forge a formidable empire. This ascent coincided with a broader cultural and intellectual reawakening across the Islamic world. Together, they ushered in a new era of Islamic influence and power.